Agri-Food Trade Service
Past, Present and Future Report
The Government of Canada has prepared this report based on primary and secondary sources of information. Readers should take note that the Government of Canada does not guarantee the accuracy of any of the information contained in this report, nor does it necessarily endorse the organizations listed herein. Readers should independently verify the accuracy and reliability of the information. This report is intended as a concise overview of the market for those interested in its potential and is not intended to provide in-depth analysis which may be required by the individual exporter. Although every effort has been made to ensure that the information is correct, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada assumes no responsibility for its accuracy, reliability, or for any decisions arising from the information contained herein.
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Table of Contents
- Executive Summary
- Canada - Tunisia Relations
- Agricultural Trade
- Consumer Market
- Access Issues
- Business Travel Tips
- Agriculture Sector & Policies
- Contact Information
- Key Resources
Although there had been recent political and economic unrest in the region of Tunisia, which had hindered market access, the current economic situation has significantly stabilized according to Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. Export Development Canada is currently monitoring the situation and is reviewing its position in this country. Nevertheless, Canadians should always exercise caution when travelling to Tunisia, as a state of emergency is still in effect.
- The World Economic Forum's Growth Competitiveness Report in 2008-2009 deemed Tunisia the most competitive economy in all of Africa.
- Relations between Canada and Tunisia have advanced in the last few years, leading to negotiations on a Canada-Tunisia Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement (FIPA).
- Canada has played an increasingly important role in Tunisia, rating as its 10th largest foreign investor, and ranking as the second largest investor in the oil and gas sector.
- Canadian exports to Tunisia increased substantially from 2007-2009 by 107.5%.
- Grains were Canada's largest export product, representing 93.8% of total agri-food exports to Tunisia in 2010
- Bulk exports accounted for 99.4% of total exports, the largest portion of Canadian agri-food exports to Tunisia in 2010.
- Roughly 80% of Tunisian consumers are considered middle class, and therefore have significant purchasing power in retail food outlets.
- The Tunisian population is projected to continue growth, allowing for a broader spectrum of tastes and a larger middle class with disposable incomes.
- The International Monetary Fund (IMF) projected a 4.8% GDP growth for Tunisia in 2011. The IMF predicts continued GDP growth in 2012 at a rate of 4.9%.
- Items considered luxury products, such as salty and sweet snacks, fruit juices or fresh fruit are becoming increasingly popular in Tunisia's retail food outlets.
Despite its small geographic size, Tunisia leads Northern Africa in its economic diversity and has one of the highest standards of living on the continent. Since 1987, the Tunisian government has greatly improved its economy and is now focused on moving towards greater international competitiveness and free market policies. Tunisia is a country with few natural resources, and is therefore highly reliant on foreign trade.
Tunisia is a strong market prospect for Canadian exporters looking to tap into the North African food market; this is mainly due to the country's growing middle-class, modernized food retail sector and thriving tourism sector. Increased exposure to Western food and way of life has brought about a change in consumption patterns for the majority of urban populations. Increasingly busy lifestyles have caused a rising trend in demand for both packaged and processed foods. The retail food industry is becoming increasingly popular, as Tunisia's main source of imported food. Tunisia's thriving tourism industry also presents ample opportunity for Canadian food and beverage exports.
Canada - Tunisia Relations
Canada and Tunisia have a friendly bilateral relationship. Tunisia is one of Canada's longest-standing partners in Africa, with the earliest diplomatic Canadian-Tunisian contact dating back to 1957. In 1966, Canada's first embassy in the North African region of Maghreb opened in Tunisia's capital, Tunis.
Canada-Tunisia relations are also strengthened due to Tunisia's large African-francophone base. Tunisia is a founding member of La Francophonie and uses French as a delivery channel for its foreign policy. Tunisia has long been a beneficiary of Canadian cooperation and aid in Africa. Established in 1964, Canada's cooperation program with Tunisia was one of the first in a Francophone African country. The Canadian International Development Agency's (CIDA) Canada Fund for Local Initiatives (CFLI) focuses on development in Tunisia. CIDA also involves Tunisia in other initiatives and development projects targeted to North Africa as a whole.
Relations between Canada and Tunisia have advanced in the last few years, leading to negotiations on a Canada-Tunisia Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement (FIPA) designed to create a set of legally binding rights and obligations to protect investors. For more information on Canada-Tunisia relations, please visit: www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/middle_east/tunisia_relations.
Canada has played an increasingly important role in Tunisia, rating as its 10th largest foreign investor, and ranking as the second largest investor in the oil and gas sector.
|Tunisia Total Trade||US$36.1 billion est.|
|Exports||US$16.1 billion est.|
|Imports||US$20.0 billion est.|
|Trade balance||(US$3.9 billion est.)|
|Trade balance||$42.8 million|
|Canada-Tunisia Ag Trade||$87.4 million|
|Trade balance||$64 million|
- In 2010, Canada-Tunisia trade totalled $144.4 million.
- Maize overcame durum wheat as Canada's largest export to Tunisia in 2010, valued at $35.0 million.
- Other top exports to Tunisia included durum wheat ($12.3 million, an 82% decrease from 2009), wheat meslin ($8.1 million), worn clothing ($4.4 million) and newspring ($4.0 million).
- Tunisia's main imports to Canada were brassieres (5.7 million), virgin olive oil at $4.4 million, olive oil and its fractions ($3.7 million), dates ($3.2 million) and woven men's trousers, overalls and shorts ($3 million).
Tunisia's agricultural trade fluctuates annually due to the reliance of its rain-fed products on an unstable climate. In drought years, the country relies heavily on imported agricultural commodities; while years with favourable rainfall for domestic crops results in a decline in imported agricultural products. In 2004, Canadian exporters saw a severe drop in agri-food exports to Tunisia, as the country witnessed favourable weather conditions and crop production. In contrast, Tunisia experienced a drought year in 2002 and Canadian agri-food exports reached $118.7 million. Canadian agri-food exports to Tunisia bounced up again between 2005 and 2009 before dropping significantly in 2010.
Although agricultural trade with Tunisia rises and falls, agri-food exporters may benefit from Canada's growing presence in the Tunisian food market. Companies such as Rougement, Quebec's Lassonde International Inc., Prevost Quebec's Au Printemps Gourmet, Florenceville, McCain Produce and the Canadian Wheat Board are experiencing success in the Tunisian food market.
|Durum wheat||$13.3 million|
|Wheat and meslin||$8.1 million|
- Agricultural trade represents roughly 27% of all trade between the two countries
- In 2010, maize overcame grains as Canada's largest agri-food export, representing 58.1% of total exports to Tunisia.
- Other export products included durum wheat (22.2%), wheat and meslin (13.4%), lentils (4.0%) and canary seed (0.8%).
- Canadian exports to Tunisia increased substantially from 2007-2009 by 107.5%. They continued to increase from 2008-2009 by 41.6%.
- There was a notable devaluation of Canadian exports to Tunisia in 2010, possibly resulting from the global recession. Exports decreased by 20% from 2009 to 2010.
|Virgin olive oil||$4.4 million|
|Olive oil and its fractions||$3.7 million|
|Dates, fresh or dried||$3.2 million|
|Fruits and other edible parts of plant||$217,555|
- Canadian imports from Tunisia has been on an increasing trend, seeing a 7% increase from 2009 to 2010.
- Olive oil remained Canada's top agri-food import from Tunisia, representing 34.9% of total imports.
- Other import products included olive oil and its refractions (29.8%), dates (25.9%), fruits and other edible parts of plant (1.7%) and couscous (1.3%).
Complete Statistical Summary Available at: www.ats-sea.agr.gc.ca/stats/da-do-eng.htm
Canada-Tunisia bulk, intermediate and consumer exports:
In 2010, bulk exports to Tunisia totalled $57.1 million. Bulk exports have consistently outweighed both intermediate and consumer exports with regards to exports to Tunisia. The domination of bulk exports is demonstrated in the following table. Canada's main bulk export to Tunisia was maize, representing 61.3% of total bulk exports. Durum wheat and wheat and meslin made up the remainder of bulk exports, accounting for 23.4% and 14.2% respectively. There was a significant decrease of 23% in bulk exports to Tunisia between 2009 and 2010, although bulk exports had risen 42% from 2008-2009.
Intermediate exports to Tunisia have been increasing at a slow rate. However intermediate goods increased 118% between 2009 and 2010 because of increased demand for lentils. Intermediate exports included lentils (77.8%), chickpeas (14.3%), turkeys (5.7%), peas (2.1%) and semen bovine (0.2%).
Consumer exports have traditionally made up the smallest portion of exports allocated to Tunisia. In fact, Canada did not export consumer products to Tunisia in 2009. Overall consumer exports had been on a steady decline since the late 2000s. However, in 2010, consumer exports totalled $74,194. Major consumer exports consisted of preparations of cereals, flour, starch or milk for infant use (53.5%), whey (43.8%), boneless bovine cuts (2.7%) and beans (0.1%).
Economic indicators were taken from before the recent political and economic unrest in the region of Tunisia. These indicators are still provided, as they demonstrate the economic strength that Tunisia is capable of achieving.
In 1987, the Tunisian government launched a privatisation and restructuring program to improve the country's economy. Over the years, this reform has built a more solid, diversified and competitive economy which is continually working to adapt to a new international environment. Although the Tunisian government is still quite involved in the economy, its control over international affairs has lessoned with a turn towards privatization, simplification of the tax structure and a cautious approach to debt. The government's progressive social policies have also helped to raise the country's living conditions.
Agriculture, textiles and clothing, mining, energy and tourism sectors are important contributors to the Tunisian economy. In recent years, favourable rainfall, increased tourism rates and the removal of trade barriers with the European Union (EU) are all factors improving Tunisia's economy. In future years, Tunisia is looking towards broader privatization, increased foreign investment, improvements in government efficiency and reduction of the trade deficit.
- Tunisia has achieved relatively steady economic growth, with an average of 5% growth per year since 1997.
- In the World Economic Forum's Growth Competitiveness Report in 2008-2009, Tunisia was deemed the most competitive economy in all of Africa.
|GDP||$49.7 billion||$43.0 billion|
|GDP/capita (PPP)||$8,272.50||US$9,500 est.|
- Despite the global recession, Tunisia's economy continued to do well. The sectors that suffered most from the economic turndown were the textile and manufacturing sectors.
- However, investment in infrastructure and a booming agricultural sector have contributed to the continuous high performance of the Tunisian economy.
- Real GDP grew 3.1% in 2009 and is expected to grow 3.7% in 2010.
- Despite growth, Tunisia continues to grapple with high unemployment, which rose to 13.1% in late 2009.
- Inflation rose from 3.8% in 2009 to 4.39% in 2010, but is expected to decrease in 2011 to 3.5%.
- Prices of staple foods in Tunisia, including sugar, milk and bread, have been rising dramatically, and political instability has contributed to unrest in the country.
- If the country continues to experience instability, forecasted growth, inflation and unemployment are not likely to match up with the predictions of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
- The IMF projected a 4.8% GDP growth for Tunisia in 2011. The IMF predicts continued GDP growth in 2012 at a rate of 4.9%.
- Tunisia's economic growth will depend heavily on the recovery of its European trading partners from the global recession.
- Further movements towards free market practices such as privatization and liberalization can be expected.
- Unemployment will continue to be a problem in Tunisia, although the IMF predicts a slight decrease from its current value of 13.1% to 12.9% by 2015.
- Inflation is expected to continue decreasing after 2011, stabilizing at around 3% by 2015.
- Consumer prices are expected to rise slightly in the coming years, possibly resulting in a decline of consumer purchasing power.
- The Tunisian population is projected to continue growth, allowing for a broader spectrum of tastes and a larger middle class with disposable incomes.
- Tensions still exist within the region and there is the threat of further revolt following the pending general election; therefore, political unrest is expected to occur.
Tunisia is a predominantly Arab Muslim country located in Northern Africa and bordering the Mediterranean Sea. The large proportion of middle class Tunisian consumers has helped assert the country as the most competitive economy in Africa. Roughly 80% of Tunisian consumers are considered middle class, and therefore have significant purchasing power in retail food outlets. A large percentage (67%) of Tunisia's population lives in urban cities, with 20% living in the greater Tunis area. It is estimated that consumers living in Tunisia's urban households spend nearly 65% more on food than consumers living in rural households. Another factor adding to the country's attractive consumer market is Tunisia's young population. Over 55% of Tunisia's population is under 30 years of age. This group is increasingly exposed to Western lifestyles through the Internet and television, and so present a strong driving force toward the transformation of natural patterns of consumption.
In line with the attractive consumer market come opportunities for Canadians to export food products to meet the demands of Tunisia's expanding modernized retail food industry. The increasing income of Tunisia's growing consumer population allows for more expenditure on food items. Tunisia's food retail sector is shifting from traditional small neighbourhood grocery shops carrying limited goods, to a more modern distribution system that is based on supermarket and hypermarket formats. These retail outlets offer more variety for Tunisian consumers, including an array of imported food products. However, exporters must be aware that although modernized retail outlets are increasing, small grocery shops still dominate the industry and consumers still may not be wealthy enough to purchase Western imported food products.
Tunisia's tourism industry also offers opportunity to Canadians wishing to tap into the country's food market. In 2009, Tunisia received close to seven million tourists. The large tourism industry, which boasts over 816 hotels, 230,000 beds, and seven international airports, continues to expand, resulting in increased opportunity for Canadian agri-food exporters. Demand for imported food products is likely to grow, especially in less established tourism markets in the northwest coast and in the southern interior.
- In 2010, the IMF estimated that Tunisia's population was 10.7 million, growing at a very low rate of roughly 1%
- About 80% of Tunisian families own houses and poverty numbers have been greatly decreased. In 2008, Tunisia's poverty level ranked at 6.3%.
- Tunisia has a strong, educated workforce. In 2008, there were 3.1 million employed people in Tunisia.
- Tunisia has a young population with over 55% of Tunisians under the age of 30.
- Tunisia's official religion is Sunni Islam and 98% of the population is Muslim.
- Tunisians are moving towards more sophisticated consumption patterns due to the increase in modern food retailing.
- Tunisian consumers devote roughly US$5 billion, or 38%, of overall household spending, on food every year. Common purchases include bread, pasta, semolina, olive oil and dairy products.
- Consumers are increasingly spending more on groceries. It is estimated that the annual food spending growth is 6.6%. Food spending continues to rank first in Tunisia's household priorities.
- Tunisia's growing middle class has higher disposable incomes which are most suited for modernized retail food markets. Factors contributing to this are an increase of dual income households, increased urbanization and increased exposure to western lifestyles and products.
- There has been an increase in fast-food restaurants in Tunisia resulting from the large middle class with increasingly disposable incomes.
- The media and Internet are developed and modernized in Tunisia. More than 25% of Tunisian families have satellite dishes and receive Arab, European and American television broadcasts. Tunisia also ranks among the top Internet-connected African and Arab nations, with about 550,000 internet users in the country.
- Despite high web usage, internet shopping is not well enough developed to have an impact on shopping habits.
- Items considered luxury products, such as salty and sweet snacks, fruit juices or fresh fruit are becoming increasingly popular in Tunisia's retail food outlets.
Retail Food Sector
- The Tunisian food and non-food retail sector boasts an annual growth rate of roughly 6.6%. This is due to the country's increased number of supermarkets and hypermarkets.
- The number of grocery retailers in Tunisia reached 164,000 in 2009. This represents a 3% increase from the previous year.
- Four new hypermarkets are expected to be established in 2011.
- Over the next decade, modernized retailers are expected to capture 30% of Tunisia's overall food retail market.
- Although French retailers (Carrefour and Casino) are currently the only foreign presence in this sector, it is expected that more foreign retailers will break into the Tunisian market as modern-style retail outlets increase over the next ten years.
- Currently, there are over 220 modern food retail outlets: 2 hypermarkets, 120 supermarkets and 100 superettes (self-service food outlets with a selling area less than 500 sq. meters).
- Major players in the Tunisian modern food retailing industry are: Group UTIC (Carrefour hypermarket and Champion supermarket), Group Mabrouk (Geant hypermarket and Monoprix supermarket fascias licensed by the French retailer, Casino), Magasin General, Promogros (a privately-owned supermarket chain), and Bonprix (chain of superettes).
- Although modern grocery outlets are increasing in popularity, the bulk of food retailing is still dominated by small neighbourhood grocery shops. Independent family-run food outlets, known as "attars", usually sell goods on credit. These make up over 85% of food retail sales, with over 250,000 outlets in Tunisia.
- Tourism is an important sector for the Tunisian economy, representing nearly 5.5% of Gross National Product in 2009, with 6.9 million tourists visiting mainly from Europe (notably Germany, France, Italy, and the United Kingdom) and North Africa.
- To meet demands of international visitors, the Tunisian tourism industry requires large amounts of imported food. Consequently, the sector represents opportunities for foreign suppliers of food and related services.
- Over half of all restaurants in Tunisia are considered high-quality. These types of restaurants are most likely to purchase foreign foods and should therefore be the primary target of Canadian companies selling to the foodservice sector.
- High-end hotels import spirits, wines and specialty cheeses either directly or via import companies. In particular, hotels and restaurants are excellent targets for alcoholic beverage exports.
- Although the recent political events in the region have affected the tourism industry in the region, there is a significant opportunity for exporters in Tunisia. Tourism industries will be looking at importing an excessive amount of agricultural products and will be reliant on the international market.
- For more information on Tunisia's tourism industry, exporters are encouraged to read The Hotel Restaurant and Institutional Food Market in Tunisia: www.tradecommissioner.gc.ca.
Tunisia's expanding middle-class and thriving tourism industry present several opportunities in the food and beverage market:
- International tourists present a demand for international cuisine in high-end hotels and restaurants.
- Despite the fact that alcohol consumption is prohibited in Muslim countries, high-end hotels and restaurants catering to international tourists present opportunities for alcoholic products.
- By 2015, 57% of the Tunisian population will be in the 15-49 year age group. This presents opportunities for new products aimed at targeting young adults.
- Modern retail food outlets have been expanding at an annual growth rate of 10%. These markets import food products for Tunisian consumers, offering more variety than traditional, small, grocery shops.
- Rising incomes will allow Tunisians to buy new products such as fruit juices, bottled water and energy drinks.
- Influence from Western media has opened the minds of Tunisian consumers to different flavours of coffee and tea. Mass producers of coffee flavours would have a good chance of entering the market.
- Consumer products in high demand include: tree nuts, dried fruits, cookies, sauces, condiments and mixed seasoning and breakfast cereals.
- There is increased demand in the food-processing sector for imported high-value ingredients licensed by multinational food companies such as Nestle and Danone.
- Due to a lack of adequate investment and development in the agricultural research sector, there is an increased demand for agricultural products from the international market.
Canadian exporters face tough competition from European countries. Tunisia and the EU signed the Tunisian European Association Agreement in 1998, committing themselves to the creation of a free trade area. This agreement came into effect on January 1, 2008. The agreement eliminates customs, tariffs and other trade barriers on manufactured goods. As mentioned above, the agreement established an EU-Tunisia free trade area for goods, excluding agriculture and services. The EU is Tunisia's major trading partner: approximately 75-80% of Tunisia's exports go to the EU, and more than 40% of imports originate from France (23%), Italy (16%), Germany (4%) and Spain (3%). France, especially, is a key exporter to Tunisia, as the countries have a strong history of francophone ties.
In addition to gaining closer bilateral trade relationships with Europe, Tunisia has pursued stronger relations with its North African neighbours. In 2001, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia joined forces in The Great Arab Free Trade Zone ahead of the 2010 target for trade barriers to end in the Euro-Mediterranean area. Over time, this free trade zone is expected to encompass ten Arab nations. Tunisia has also signed a framework agreement as a precursor to a multilateral trade agreement with Egypt, Jordan, and Morocco, known as the Agadir Agreement. The agreement established a market of over 100 million people across North Africa and the Middle East.
The United States (US) also has a strong trade relationship with Tunisia through the United States-North African Economic Partnership, which encourages increased two-way trade between the US, Tunisia and other Maghreb states.
Although Canadian exporters face much competition from these countries, especially Europe, Canadians wishing to transport food products to Tunisia can benefit from improved infrastructure which was put in place to obtain a free trade status with the EU. Tunisia has made changes to its Tunis-Carthage International Airport, and road and rail network improvements are increasing steadily. Berthing space and port facilities are undergoing continuous upgrading.
Canadian exporters must be prepared for bureaucratic hurdles when entering the Tunisian market due to the country's traditionally high tariffs that protect domestic industries (particularly on consumer-oriented products). Exporters of bulk and intermediate goods may also face regulatory challenges. In recent years, however, the IMF has urged that high-tariffs be reduced as part of Tunisia's "second-generation reforms".
The best way to access the Tunisian food retail market is through suitable local importers who are experienced in working with modern retail outlets. Such importers are able to negotiate shelf space and promotional activities with supermarket chains. Canadian exporters are encouraged to check the credentials of Tunisian importers. Another approach may be to contact retailers directly, especially if exporters are interested in making large quantity shipments. Many retailers have subsidiaries dealing with local and international procurement.
Supermarkets and hypermarkets in Tunisia are commonly stocked through two channels: importers or directly by the retailer using its own local and international procurement subsidiaries, called "Centrale D'Achats". Small grocery stores source their goods mostly from wholesalers and from certain importers who have their own distribution fleet to supply goods at the retail level.
Tunisia's business environment is generally credible. In 2010, the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index ranked Tunisia as one of the least corrupt countries in Africa, coming in at a final rank of 59 out of 178 countries. However, recent political unrest has led to some economic instability, which may hinder market access.
More information on the current situation in Tunisia can be found at www.tradecommissioner.gc.ca.
For further information on accessing Tunisian Import Regulations please visit: www.international.gc.ca.
Business Travel Tips
- Canadians should dress formally for business meetings in Tunisia. Long pants should always be worn by men, while women are advised to wear clothing that covers the majority of the body, especially shoulders and legs.
- During the holy fasting month of Ramadan the workday is shorter. At this time of the year, it's important to be concise and avoid lengthy meetings.
- Businesses and offices in Tunis, the country's capital, operate very limited hours during the month of August.
- Establishing a personal relationship with prospective business partners is essential in doing business in Tunisia. Maintaining this relationship through regular visits and other forms of personal contact is also recommended.
- Because of the country's emphasis on personal relationships, cold calling or sending direct mail to potential clients or customers is not recommended.
- Tunisians perceive Canadian goods as of high-quality, but businessmen may be reluctant to pay substantial premiums, as price remains the most determining factor. Therefore, Canadian exporters should be prepared for relatively demanding price negotiations.
- Tunisia's official language is Arabic, although French is widely spoken and serves as the common business language. Many Tunisians are also beginning to speak English.
- The Tunisian weekend is Saturday and Sunday and unlike the majority of Islamic countries, where the day of rest is Friday; Tunisia's day of rest is Sunday.
- For additional tips on travelling in Tunisia please visit: www.voyage.gc.ca/countries_pays/report_rapport-eng.asp?id=299000
Agriculture Sector & Policies
Agriculture is one of the most important sectors to Tunisia's economy, accounting for approximately 10% of its GDP and half of its workforce. The geography and climate of Tunisia is varied, containing a temperate mountainous region in the north, a Mediterranean maritime climate along the east coast, hot and dry plains in the centre and desert conditions in the south. Of this land mass, roughly 18% is arable.
Tunisian agriculture, while important to the economy, lacks modern infrastructure and features an unpredictable climate which negatively affects the country's ability to be self-sufficient. Although the Tunisian government has taken steps to establish modern infrastructure to better comply with its free trade agreement with the EU, more needs to be done to boost agricultural production. Furthermore, the majority of Tunisia's agricultural products are rain-fed, including wheat and barley, which makes its agricultural sector vulnerable to drought. Tunisia also has few natural resources, which has increasingly put a large constraint on its agricultural sector. Soil erosion, desertification, and rapid urbanization have depleted agriculture of arable land, labour and water and reduced capacity for satisfying the growing food demand of the Tunisian population.
In an effort to combat these problems, the Tunisian government has implemented policies designed to conserve and better manage their resources. The government privatized its state-owned farms which led to growth in many industries, including dairy, poultry and wine. Tunisia also signed an agricultural agreement with the EU in 2001 which presented new opportunities for Tunisian agricultural exports and boosted the country's position in the European market. This agreement especially increased the export of olive oil, double concentrate tomato paste and table grapes.
Next to olive oil, the fish and seafood industry represents the second major source of food export and is a principal activity in the agricultural sector. Tunisia's common fish catch includes tuna fish, shrimp, cuttlefish and squid, shellfish and mussels, octopus, sea bass and sea bream, sardines and anchovies.
Tunisia also has a food processing sector that is important to its economy. Despite its underdeveloped status compared to North American and European standards, it is one of Tunisia's main industries alongside textiles and clothing. The greatest concentration of the food processing industry can be found in the oils and fats segment along with the cereals and derivatives segment.
Cité des pins
Berges du Lac 2
P.O. Box 31
Tunis-Belvédère, 1002, Tunisia
Tel: (011-216) 71-104-050
Fax: (011-216) 71-104-193
Office Hours: Mon-Thurs: 0900-1200/1300-1600; Fri: 0900-1230
Time Difference E.S.T.: +6
Mr. Lassaad Bourguiba
Agricultural Technology and Equipment, Agriculture, Food and Beverages, Bio-Industries, Environmental Industries, Health Industries, Manufacturing Technologies, Metals, Minerals and Related Equipment, Services and Technology, Oil and Gas Equipment and Services, Rail and Urban Transit, Service Industries and Capital Projects, Tourism
- Canadian Agriculture Trade Statistics (CATS) - Staistics Canada/Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada - 2010
- Canadian Exports and Imports - Industry Canada – 2010
- DFAIT – Background on the Canada-Tunisia Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement (FIPA) – 2010
- DFAIT – Virtual Trade Commissioner – 2010
- Euromonitor International – Consumer Lifestyles in Tunisia – 2007
- Import Regulations - International Trade Canada - Trade Commissioner Service – 2010
- International Monetary Fund – World Economic Outlook Database – 2010
- Transparency International – Corruption Perceptions Index – 2010
- Tunisia - CIA World Fact Book - 2010
- Tunisia - Country Profile - Economist – 2007
- United States Department of Agriculture – Foreign Agricultural Service - 2010
- U.S. Department of State – Background Note: Tunisia – 2010
- World Trade Organization – Trade Profile: Tunisia – 2009